Notes for Unit 1: Matter and Bonding

Atomic Structure and the Particle Theory of Matter
By: Ajaykumar Shanmugaraj
Thursday September 13th, 2012

Summary:
  • What is Matter?
  • The Law of Conservation of Mass
  • The Law of Constant Composition
  • Model of the Atom
Matter:
  • Matter is3matterforms.gif something that has mass and takes up space (has volume).
  • Particles make up matter and are different amongst different elements
  • Temperature and pressure determine how fast particles are moving within a substance. The higher the temperature, the faster the particles are moving.
  • Some of John Dalton's atomic theory concepts are still considered today, while others aren't.
  • 3 Types of Movement: Vibration, Rotational and Translation
  • On Page 8 of the textbook
Law of Conservation of Mass:
Law of Constant Composition:
  • The structure of a substance is always the same. Different elements chemically combine in fixed whole number ratios to form compounds.
Model of the Atom:
Electron:
  • Discovered in 1897 by J.J Thompson and Robert Millikan by using cathode ray tubes during an experiment
  • On Page 12 of the textbook
Proton:
  • Discovered in 1919 by Ernest Rutherford and J.J Thompson during an experiment called the "Gold Foil Experiment"
  • On Page 13 of the textbook
Neutron:
  • Discovered in 1932 by James Chadwick by using scattered data to calculate the mass of the neutral particles
  • On Page 13 of the textbook

Notes:
  • Atomic number = # of protons
  • Atomic mass number= # of protons + # of neutrons
  • # neutrons = mass number - atomic number
  • On Page 15 of the textbook
Homework: Page 10 # 2-4 , Page 16 # 2, 5 ,10
Useful Pages: 11-16

By Meraj Badiuzzaman
Monday, September 17, 2012
Radioisotopes and Half Life

Summary
  • What is Radioisotopes
  • What does Half Life mean?
  • Carbon [[#|Dating]] and uses of Radioisotopes
  • Formula of a Half Life problem
  • Different types of Radioisotopes

external image atom.gif
Radioisotopes
  • Radioisotopes are unstable isotopes that go through radioactive decay
  • They produce ionizing radiation and a more stable nucleus
  • Every radioisotope has a characteristic rate of decay which is also known as Half Life.
  • An example of a radioisotope is C-14.

Half Life
  • Half Life is the time that is required for half of radioisotope nuclei to decay
  • Every radioisotope have fixed unique rate of radioactive decay
  • The rate of decay is [[#|special]] characteristics that differ in different radioisotopes.
  • Some Half-Lives may go from a few second to many years such as Po-226 which has a 0.16s half life while Cs-142 has a 5x1015 year half-life.

Carbon [[#|Dating]] and uses of Radioisotopes
external image calciumdecay.png
  • Carbon Dating is used for finding the age of an organism that was once living.
  • Due to the carbon cycle, carbon is always being recycled because of living organisms
  • If a living creature dies, the carbon cycle is stop and the C-14 in the organism starts to decay
  • By comparing the amount of C-14 from a living creature to the dead organism, it makes it possible to determine the age of the dead organism
  • For finding the age of an non living object people use K-40
  • People who use radioisotopes are;
    • Anthropologists
    • Geologists
    • Pathologist
    • Museum curators
    • Art experts
    • Art authenticators


Formula of a Half Life Problem
  1. of half-lives= time elapsed x ratio for half-life

or

Af=Ai(1/2)t/t1/2
  • Af= the amount of substance left
  • Ai= the starting amount of a substance
  • t= total time
  • t1/2 =the half-life of the substance

Different Types of Radioisotopes
Alpha (α)
Beta (β)
Gamma(g)
  • The nuclei of helium atom
  • Has a 2 protons and 2 neutrons
  • Has a 2+ charge
  • Stopped in a few centimeters of air
  • Electrons travel at very high speeds
  • Has a negative charge
  • Stopped by a thin sheet of lead or aluminum foil
  • Do not consist of Particles
  • A form of high energy radiation, similar to X-rays
  • Stopped by a sheet of lead several centimeters thick or reinforced concrete

Homework
Work sheets:
Half- Life Activity Print Out
Radioactive Decay and Half Life Problems Print Out

Text Book Pages
(P. 23-29)

By Meraj Badiuzzaman
Date: Tuesday September 18, 2012

Conversion Quiz Answers



The answers to the quiz will be posted as soon as the quiz is marked and handed back to the students.

Homework
Bohr Rutherford Diagram of Oxygen, Chlorine, Sodium, Aluminum and Calcium


By Meraj Badiuzzaman
Date: Wednesday September 19, 2012

Electron Configuration


Summary
  • What is Quantum Mechanics?
  • Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
  • Energy Levels
  • Atomic Orbital’s
  • Writing Electron Configuration

Quantum Mechanics
  • The equations that describes the probability distribution of an electron
  • Only a discrete amount of energy is in the electron with in the atom
  • Schrodinger’s wave equation is the mathematical equation that describes the location of an electron

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
  • Velocity = speed + direction
  • The velocity and location of an electron is not known but with the Schrodinger’s equation we can describe the probability of where the electron might be
  • Electron clouds are in the regions outside of the nucleus in which the electrons are found

Energy Levels
external image energy_levels.gif
  • Electrons can jump from one energy level to another
  • When an electron jumps up from one energy level to another is absorbs energy
  • When a electrons down from one energy level to another they release energy
  • The closer the energy level to the nucleus is, the less energy it has
  • Electron cant not exist between energy levels
  • Ground state = at the lowest state of an atom
  • Excited state = at a charge state of an atom


Atomic Orbital’s
  • Orbital’s are electrons that were divided into sub-levels
  • There are 4 types s,p,d, and f
  • s is the lowest energy level while f is the highest energy level
external image hybrid1.gif
s orbital’s
p orbital’s
d orbital’s
f orbital’s
  • Single orbital
  • hold a maximum of 2 electrons
  • found in every energy level
  • *s orbital’s are spherical shaped
  • A set of 3 orbital’s
  • Hold a maximum of 6 electrons
  • Found at energy level 2 and above
  • *p orbital’s are bowtie shaped
  • A set of 5 orbital’s
  • Hold a maximum of 10 electrons
  • Found at energy level 3 and above
  • A set of 7 orbital’s
  • Hold a maximum of 14 electrons
  • Found at energy level 4 and above


Writing Electron Configuration
  • Indicate the energy level with a number
  • Write the orbital type next to the number
  • With an exponent show how many electrons are in the orbital
  • Fill the increasing energy starting from the first orbital to the last
  • Sometimes the orbital’s overlap because the energy level is closer to the nucleus
external image IMG00011.GIF



Homework
Write the Electron Configuration of Potassium, Chromium, Carbon, Zinc and Iron
Read Electron Configuration and atomic orbitals Print Out

Text Book Pages
N/A

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By: Athura Thavathasan
Thursday, September 20, 2012

Summary:
  • Read Pages 30-33 + make notes
  • Answer p33 # 1-7
  • Read Pages 34-35
  • Answer p35 # 1 - 4a

Homework
Complete any work not finished in Class.

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By: Athura Thavathasan
Friday, September 21, 2012

Electron Configuration


Summary:

  • Continuation of Electron ConfigurationUntitled 123.png
  • Order of Electronic Configuration Method
  • Short Form Electron Configuration

Electron Configuration


Definition: A statement representing the numerous electronic energy levels of an atom.

  • Bohr- Rutherford’s model of the atom described the number of protons and neutron is the nucleus.
  • The Bohr model included the number of electrons in each energy levels/cells.
  • The electron configuration statement help indicate the specific orbit the electron(s) are contained in.
  • The configuration uses the periodic table to state the configuration of an element with its location.
  • Single_electron_orbitals.jpgVideo # 1

Order of Electron Configuration Method

  • Orbitals are in
  • order of increasing energy.
  • Due to the overlapping of the energy levels, some orbital (high) appear closer to the nucleus than, the other orbital (low).
  • So we use the diagram to the right to write the statement in the correct order of orbital’s appearance.
  • Website # 1>


Short Form Electron Configuration

Untitled.png797px-Periodic_Table_2.svg.png
Homework Answers

Write the Electron Configuration of Potassium, Chromium, Carbon, Zinc and Iron

(K): 1S2,2S2,2P6,3S2,3P6,4S1

(Cr): 1S2,2S2,2P6,3S2,3P6,4S1,3D6
(C): 1S2,2S2,2P3
(Zn): 1S2,2S2,2P6,3S2,3P6,4S2,3D10
(Fe): 1S2,2S2,2P6,3S2,3P6,4S2,3D6


Homework

Electron Configuration and Atomic Orbitals Exercise Print out





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By: Julie Nguyen
Monday September 24, 2012
The Periodic Table, Review of Electromagnetic Spectrum, and Flame tests

Summary
  • Modern Periodic Table
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Flame tests

  • The Modern Periodic Table
    -elements follow the oder of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column(or Group)

*Groups: vertical columns (#1-18) *Periods: horizontal rows (#1-7)
  • The s-Block Elements
-Group 1: Alkali Metals
-soft silvery metals; most reactive of all metals
-never found free in nature
  • The d-Block Elements
-Group 3-12
-they are all metals with metallic properties ( malleability, luster, good conductors, etc...)

-are referred to as the harder and denser than alkali or alkaline;less reactive
  • The p-Block Elements
-contain metals and nonmetals; metalloids along zigzag line have characteristics of both metals and non-metals
-the metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium
  • Group 17 Halogens- most reactive nonmetals
-7 electrons in outermost (s and p) energy levels
-called the salt formers
-a slat is a metal ion and a nonmetal ion bonded together
  • Group 18 Noble gase- unreactive
-8 electrons in outermost s and p energy levels; all are gases
  • The f-Block elements: Inner Transition Metals
-final electrons fill an f sub level
-Lanthanides-shiny reactive metals
-Actinides- unstable and radioactive
  • Hydrogen and Helium Oddballs
-Hydrogen is not an alkali metal; it is a very reactive gas
-Helium is a Noble gas, it is unreactive, but it does not have 8 electrons in outermost energy level


LINK to........................
animated Periodic Table


  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
-radiation of high frequency and short wavelengths are more energetic than radiation of low frequency and long wavelengths
-each particle of light carries a quantum of energy
-Einstein called these particles PHOTONS
-a photon is a particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
-when looking at visible, 'white light' through a spectroscope there is a continuous spectrum of coloured light ROYGBIV( the colours of the rainbow)
  • Flame Tests

Compound
Notation
Colour
Lithium chloride
Li+
Blueish red, bright crimson
Potassium chloride
K+
mauve, purple
Copper (II) chloride
Cu2+
Blue/green
Sodium chloride
Na+
Orange
Strontium chloride
Sr2+
True red



Homework: N/A
Useful Textbook pages: 30-33


By: Julie Nguyen
September 25, 2012
Trends in the Periodic Table: A Graphical Analysis
Summary:
  • worked on graphing worksheets
  • If graphs were not finished during class, you are responsible to complete it for homework
  • two handouts were given
  • will be collected tomorrow !

Click on the link below, if you need the worksheets that were handed out today:
Trends in the Periodic Table

Homework: Trends in the Periodic Table: A Graphical Analysis
Useful Textbook pages: 36-39

By: Julie Nguyen
September 26, 2012 Trends in Atomic Radii

Summary
  • trends in the Periodic Table
  • whole lesson on different trends
  • continued to fill in the blanks from the handout 'The Modern periodic Table' which was given the day before yesterday
  • for the handout, click on link below
HANDOUT

  • Atomic Radius
-is the distance from the centre of the nucleus of an atom to the outermost electron
-the greater number of energy levels, the greater is the distance of the outermost electron to the centre of its atom's nucleus
Group trend- atomic radii increases as you move down a group
Period trend- atomic radii decrease as you move across a period
  • Ionic Radius
-is the distance from the centre of the nucleus of an ion to the outermost electron
-Cations (positive charges) will have a smaller ionic radius than the neutral atom
-Anions (negative charges) will have a larger ionic radius than the neutral atom
  • Force of Attraction
-between negatively charged electrons and the positively charged nucleus is the electrostatic attraction of opposite charges
-force of attraction existing between the outermost electron and the middle of the nucleus is dependent on two factors:
  1. The size of the positive charge- determined by the number of protons in the nucleus
  2. The distance between the outermost electron and the nucleus
A balance exist between the attraction of the electrons to the nucleus and the repulsion of the electrons between themselves
  • Ionization Energy
-is the energy in kilojoules per mole (kj/mol) needed to remove the outermost electron from a gaseous atom to form a positive ion (cation)

NOTE: Metals react to lose electrons

Trend: Ionization ENergy (IE)
Group trend- ionization energy increases as you move up a group (or decreases as you move down a group)

Period trend- Ionization energy increases as you move across the period(left to right)

Homework: section 1.7 pg 36-40
Do, pg 41 #1-7
Textbook: Pages 36-40 and 41

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By: Athura Thavathasan

Thursday, September 27, 2012



Trend in Atomic Radii


Summary



  • Electron Affinity [EA]
  • Trend: Electron Affinity [EA]
  • Electron affinity vs. Ionization energy
  • Electronegativity [EN]
  • Trend: Electronegativity [EN]
  • Effective Nuclear Charge [ENC] and Shielding
  • Successive Ionization Energies



For Trend in Atomic Radii Handout



Electron AffinityElectron Affinity Trend IK.png




Trend: Electron Affinity

  • Periods - EA increases as you move across the periodic table from left to right, since the atoms size decreases because of the pull of the protons (nuclear charge) increases as you move across.
  • Groups - EA increases as you move up the groups from bottom to top, since the number of electrons increase, the atoms with the lower electron shells has a increasing nuclear charge.



Electrons affinity vs. Ionization energy

  • Both the electron affinity and ionization energy follow the same trend
  • The stronger the attraction an atom has for the electrons, the harder it would be to remove the electrons from the atom and higher the IE level
  • The greater the attraction the greater the energy is released when an atom gains electrons



Electronegativity111_Electronegativity_Table.jpg

  • Is the measurement of tendency of an atom to gain electrons at the state of chemically bonded with another element.
  • The stronger the pull of attraction the more tendency the atom has to gain electrons.
  • Metals have low EN and non-metals have high EN.
  • The Pauling Electronegativity Scale created by DR. Linus Pauling set his scale from 0-4.



Trend: Electronegativity

  • Periods - EN increases as you go across a period(except the noble gases) because the size decreases
  • Groups - EN increases as you go up a group, since there’s a lower pull from the nucleus as the electrons go further away from the nucleus
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93G_FqpGFGY



Effective Nuclear Charge [ENC] and Shielding

  • Number of Protons – Number of Inner Electrons
  • The force of attraction between the protons in the nucleus and electrons in the energy shells and holds the atom together250px-Effective_Nuclear_Charge.svg.png
  • The inner electrons partially block or shield the outer electrons the attraction of the protons
  • The controlling of the positive nuclear charge is called the “Shielding Effect”
  • The greater the NEC the greater the attraction for electrons
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P32FDbPy_PE


Successive Ionization Energies

  • For every electron in an atom there will be an ionization energy value
  • The 1st ionization energy is the lowest and the values increase as you remove each electron
  • Noticeable there will be a jump in the increase of the IE once the configuration for the noble gases are reached because a energy shell is removed the radius is smaller
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywqg9PorTAw



Homework

  • Observation Chart
  • Article # 1 - ISU

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On October the First: We did a lab on the Reactivity of Metals in Hydrochloric AcidBy Nicole Anasis
These were the step provided by the Textbook --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->lab.pg44.jpg
However, Ms Wilson condensed the steps into the ones following:

1. Gather materials
Test tube rack
4 stoppers
4 test tubes

2. Get 20.0mL of 0.5M HCl
Put that in a graduated cylinder using a breaker, adjust measurements using a dropper

3. Get small amounts of each of the metals

4. Make observations of everything

5. Put each metal in a test tube after measuring 5.0 mL of HCl

6. Stopper immediately

7. Make observations

8. Watch for 20 minutes, take observations

9. Test each test tube with a (flaming) wooden splint (where you would be testing for hydrogen)

10. Clean up!



 http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/4544/530wm/A5000624-Iron_reacting_with_hydrochloric_acid-SPL.jpg
http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/4544/530wm/A5000624-Iron_reacting_with_hydrochloric_acid-SPL.jpg
Iron reacting with Hydrochloric acid.
http://www.kalipedia.com/kalipediamedia/cienciasnaturales/media/200709/24/fisicayquimica/20070924klpcnafyq_135.Ies.SCO.jpg
http://www.kalipedia.com/kalipediamedia/cienciasnaturales/media/200709/24/fisicayquimica/20070924klpcnafyq_135.Ies.SCO.jpg
Magnesium reacting with Hydrochloric acid.




http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/4161/530wm/A5000224-Zinc_reacting_with_hydrochloric_acid-SPL.jpg
http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/4161/530wm/A5000224-Zinc_reacting_with_hydrochloric_acid-SPL.jpg
Zinc reacting with Hydrochloric acid.


THE HOMEWORK:Full, Formal Written Lab Report Due on October the Ninth










On October the Second: We wrote a Quiz and learned KEY POINTS to writing Lab Reports.
By Nicole Anasis

THE QUIZ

Was on everything that we had learned prior to writing it
Marking scheme and answers will be posted when everyone has written and received the quiz back.

Key Points to Writing a Lab Report!


Here is the link to the Lab report pdf provided by the Chemistry department: http://sch3uking.wikispaces.com/file/view/labreportformat.pdf

Lab reports are formally written
THEREFORE THERE ARE NO
  • contractions (e.g. don't, isn't)
  • Personal pronouns (e.g. I, you, me, we, our) (Also, do not write "The scientists")

The lab report must be written in the form of Past Passive (e.g. “A splint test was done”, “5mL of HCl was added to each test-tube.”)

Purpose
  • The purpose is stated in the textbook.

Materials
  • Materials should be listed in two columns
  • One column has equipment
  • The other column has all of the chemicals
  • The concentration of the chemicals must be written
  • Equipment must have the numbers of each of the items used beside each instrument (e.g. test tubes (4) )
  • Equipment’s size must be stated (e.g. 25 mL graduated cylinder (4) )

YOU ARE NOT TO
  • State the amounts or masses of the chemicals used (e.g. 0.5 M HCl 20 mL)
  • Write the number one beside a piece of equipment used (e.g. test tubes (1) )
  • Put the materials in a table
  • put headings on the columns

Method
  • Written in past passive
  • Numbered steps

DO NOT: Start a sentence with a digit. (e.g. 8) If you must start a sentence with a number write it out (e.g. eight)

Diagram
  • The diagram is the simplified version of the setup used
  • Labels must all line up at one side of the image, connected to the object they are labelling by a straight horizontal line.

Observations:
  • The rough table done in class must be made into a good copy.

Discussion and Analysis:
  • Questions are provided by the textbook under the "ANALYZE AND EVALUATE" heading.
Answer all questions regarding Part B

Conclusion:

First Sentence: Restate the purpose
Second Sentence: Answer the question the lab is asking (summarize your findings/ what you have seen.)
Third Sentence: Sources of error (do not include any human error)

References:
  • Text book
  • Partners
  • Ms. Wilson

ROUGH WORK MUST BE ATTACHED TO THE BACK OR IT WILL NOT BE MARKED.

Text book pages provided here:






On October the Third: We learned about Ionic and Covalent bonding and the Ionic bonding Lewis dot diagram format.
NaCl_ionic_bond.gif
A Step of the Lewis dot diagram of an ionic compound.



Ionic Compounds!

  • Are made of ions
That is why it is called an ionic compound!
Ions are when atoms have lost or gained electrons.
  • Are made of a non-metal and a metal
Non-metals have a strong enough electronegativity to take a metal’s valence electrons.
This means: Metals lose electrons
Non-Metals gain electrons.
  • When atoms lose or gain electrons they obtain a charge in the process.
This makes the atoms either positive (a cation) or negative (an anion)
Cations and Anions act similarly to magnets and attract one another

Covalent Compounds!

  • Are made of atoms
More specifically non-metals and non-metals
  • Valence electrons are shared
Non-metals have similar electronegativities, meaning they are not strong enough to pull another non-metal’s valence electrons away, thus they are shared.

The number of valence electrons an atom has determines the number of bonds it can make.
Atoms that have 1-4 valence electrons can bond with up to as many bonds as there are electrons.
Atoms that have 5-8 valence electrons can bond to as many atoms as the difference of 8 - the number of valence electrons it has.
(i.e. [ 8 - No. of valence electrons = # of possible bonds])


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width="738" height="368"]]


This is the format for a Lweis dot diagram for ionic compounds.
First you draw a lewis dot diagram of each atom, indicating where electrons are going.
Then you show the ions in square brackets, with their ionic valence shell, if the atom has lost all of its electrons you do not do the electrons in the "new" valence shell.
Make sure the charges are written outside of the brackets.

TEXTBOOK PAGES FOR THIS LESSON RANGE FROM page 56 to 64.

Homework: page 60 questions numbered 1-8
front of the handout provided
LAB REPORT DUE OCTOBER THE 9.